Translating Principles into Practices of Digital Ethics: Five Risks of Being Unethical. Liberamente scaricabile il Paper di Luciano Floridi

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It has taken a very long time, but today, the debate on the ethical impact and implications of digital technologies has reached the front pages of newspapers. This is understandable: digital technologies — from web-based services to Artificial Intelli- gence (AI) solutions — increasingly affect the daily lives of billions of people, so there are many hopes but also concerns about their design, development, and deployment (Cath et al. 2018 ). After more than half a century of academic research, the recent public reaction has been a flourishing of initiatives to establish what principles, guidelines, codes, or frameworks can ethically guide digital innovation, particularly in AI, to benefit hu- manity and the whole environment. This is a positive development that shows aware- ness of the importance of the topic and interest in tackling it systematically. Yet, it is time that debate evolves from the what to the how : not just what ethics is needed but also how ethics can be effectively and successfully applied and implemented in order to make a positive difference. For example, the European Ethics Guidelines for Trustwor- thy AI 3 establish a benchmark for what may or may not qualify as ethically good AI in the EU. Their publication is currently being followed by practical efforts of testing, application, and implementation.

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